Continuing this series, let’s talk about fd.

What is fd?

fd is an extremely fast replacement for the GNU coreutils’ find(1) tool. It’s written in Rust, and is built for humans, arguably unlike find(1).

Why do I use it?

Other than the obvious speed benefits, one of the most critical improvements you’ll notice in your workflow with fd is the presence of good defaults. By default fd ignores hidden files and folders, and respects .gitignore and similar files. Here’s a small comparison to show you the differences between fd and find(1)’s default behaviors.

Running both find and fd on the repository for this website, then piping the results into

$ find | paste
$ fd | paste

If you check both those links, you’ll observe that find(1) has a significantly higher number of results compared to fd. Looking closely, you’ll also notice that find(1) has dumped the entire .git directory into the results as well, alongwith the public directory of Hugo which contains the built site. These are surely important directories, but you almost never want to search through your .git directory or build artifacts. fd shines here by excluding them automatically, while being significantly faster than find(1) even when they’re both returning the exact number of results.

On top of these, fd also comes with a very rich set of options that let you do many typically complex operations within fd itself.

Converting all JPEG files to PNG

$ fd -tf jpg$ -x convert {} {.}.png

Some new things here!

  • -tf means we only want files. There are multiple options for this in fd, including directory, executable, symlink, and even UNIX pipes and sockets.
  • jpg$ is our search term, in RegEx. fd makes use of BurntSushi’s excellent regex library for extremely quick RegEx parsing, and is able to thus support it by default. You can override this by passing -g/--glob to use glob-based matching instead. RegEx itself is too complicated, and my experience with it too limited, to actually cover it all here. All you need to know here is that the $ at the end simply means that we want jpg to be the final characters of our matching term.
  • -x is one of two exec modes provided by fd. -x runs the provided command for each term separately, in a multi-threaded fashion, so for long-running tasks you might want to reduce CPU load by restricting threads using --threads <num>.
  • {} and {.} are part of fd’s execution placeholders that let you manipulate search results a bit more before handing them off to external commands. {} is replaced with the result as-is, and {.} strips the file extension. There are a couple more that you can check out using fd --help.
  • convert is an external command from the ImageMagick suite of tools.

Finding and deleting all files with a specific extension

$ fd -HItf \\.xml$ -X rm -v

Mostly familiar now, but with some key differences.

  • -H and -I combined are used to include hidden and ignored files into the results.
  • \\.xml$ is a more expansive RegEx that ensures that you only delete files that match a_file.xml and not this_is_not_an_xml, by ensuring that we match on .xml and not just xml. The double backslash is an escape sequence, because . has a special meaning in RegEx that we do not want here.
  • -X is the other exec mode, batch. It runs the given command by passing all results as parameters in one go. Since we want to delete files, and rm lets you specify an arbitrary amount of arguments, we can use this and thus only run rm once.

Updating all git repositories in a directory

$ fd -Htd ^.git$ --maxdepth 1 -x hub -C {//} sync

Already feels like home!

  • -Htd together search for hidden folders.
  • ^.git$ matches exactly on .git by mandating that .git be both the first (^) and last ($) characters.
  • --maxdepth 1 is a speed optimization to make fd only check the current directory and not traverse.
  • -x again runs each command separately
  • {//} gives us the parent directory. For, this will give you

hub is a git wrapper that provides some handy features on top like sync which updates all locally checked out branches from their upstream remotes. You can re-implement this with some leg work but I’ll leave that as an exercise for you.

And that’s about it! Let me know what you think of fd and if you’re switching to it.

This was part 3 of the Tools of the trade series.